wswld

Running behind the schedule since 1989

Humble Collection of i3wm Lifehacks: Part I

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Lifehack 1: Locking the Screen

This is kinda a nobrainer, but me myself sometimes look for a place, where to copy some of the syntax (I’m lazy and don’t always keep that in my head), so let’s start with this one. i3wm ships with beautiful and robust screen locker i3lock, wchich can be launched like that:

i3lock -c 000000

It will lock the screen with black overlay. The problem is, that you wouldn’t be typing this command every time you want to lock the screen. We need to add a shortcut to i3 config file:

bindsym $mod+Shift+Tab exec "i3lock -c 000000"

Now when we press the combination of mod-button (Win in my case) and Shift+Tab – our screen gets locked.

Lifehack 2: Activating/Disactivating the Second Screen

If you use i3wm on daily basis, you probably know, that the second screen is not turned on automatically. You should manage displays manually with xrandr command. If we run this command without attributes, we’re gonna get something like this:

Screen 0: minimum 320 x 200, current 3200 x 1080, maximum 8192 x 8192
LVDS1 connected 1280x800+1920+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 261mm x 163mm
   1280x800      60.02*+  50.05  
   1024x768      60.00  
   800x600       60.32    56.25  
   640x480       59.94  
VGA1 connected 1920x1080+0+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 521mm x 293mm
   1920x1080     60.00*+
   1680x1050     59.95  
   1280x1024     75.02    60.02  
   1440x900      59.89  
   1280x960      60.00  
   1280x720      59.97  
   1024x768      75.08    70.07    60.00  
   832x624       74.55  
   800x600       72.19    75.00    60.32    56.25  
   640x480       75.00    72.81    66.67    60.00  
   720x400       70.08  
HDMI1 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)
DP1 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)

On some rare occasion writing something like this would not be a problem:

xrandr --output VGA1 --right-of LVDS1 --auto

Well, I know you’re probably well aware of how xrandr works. Just in case.

However, it may get pretty redundant if you use second screen on daily basis and regularly unplug it from your laptop. The best way to go would be to add script shortcut to your /usr/bin/ or /bin/ directory. Run the following lines:

printf '#!/bin/bash\n\nxrandr --output VGA1 --right-of LVDS1 --auto' > /usr/bin/screenswitch
chmod 755 /usr/bin/screenswitch

We can use screenswitch command which doesn’t make it much easier. What would certainly help us is a key shortcut, so let’s add a line similar to one in the previous hack to our i3 configuration:

bindsym XF86Display exec "screenswitch"

Try some other key combination if you have no special display button. Of course the script itself is pretty basic and it would work only if your screen works well in auto and you use the same second screen daily. However, there are more complex scripts available all over the web (example). Now when you press on your special key combo (Fn+F7 on my ThinkPad), you enable/disable the second screen.

Lifehack 3: Locking the Screen on Wake

If you use pm-utils with your i3wm setup, you’ve probably noticed that the screen is not locked, when the laptop is awakened after suspend or hibernate. It’s very insecure. Let’s try to fix it. Create file cat /etc/pm/sleep.d/91blocker and add the following lines to it:

#!/bin/sh
case "$1" in
        thaw|resume)
                su youruser -c '/usr/bin/i3lock -c 000000'
                ;;
        *) exit $NA
                ;;
esac

Don’t forget to change youruser to your username. Now let’s make sure we have all the right permissions:

chmod 755 /etc/pm/sleep.d/91blocker

Now, if we run pm-suspend or pm-hibernate our screen is going to be locked on wake. This script has one shortcoming though: it doesn’t lock the screen instantly, so you may see stuff for a couple of seconds before it gets locked. If it is not a critical issue to you, feel free to use it, othrewise you may need to work on it or find a different solution altogether. If you have any ideas how to improve it, let me know.

Written by wswld

March 21, 2015 at 11:33 pm

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Short History of my Relationship with Lenovo ThinkPad

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My own ThinkPad X201.

My own ThinkPad X201 workhorse

For those, who have limited time, this post comes down to the following statement: Lenovo Thinkpad X201 is the best X-series Thinkpad created yet. What follows is my attempt at proving this point with my merely anecdotal evidence. I’m funny like that. Here comes a short story of my relationship with Lenovo Thinkpad X series.

In 2013 I’ve been working as a technical writer (more technical than a writer actually) in a medium-sized web-slash-mobile startup and the Macbook, they’d given me, failed and I decided to try something new. At that time I got increasingly interested in Lenovo Thinkpad (yeah, it hadn’t been IBM for quite a long time already). A couple of my colleagues had these X220 machines and they seemed pretty solid and professional, especially with all kinds of Linux installed on them (I worked with a bunch of Python devs and everybody used their favorite flavor of Linux). My transition from Macbook to Thinkpad was also dictated by how Macbook wouldn’t let me use i3wm (which I was completely sold on at the time) as the main WM. So I went to my manager an he approved my order. The problem was I wasn’t really familiar with modern ThinkPads then and ordered 14″ model (figured I could use all the extra screen space). I figured any Thinkpad will do. It was my mistake.

I got T431S, which was admittedly quite expensive at the time, but didn’t look like Thinkpad at all. If anything it resembled plastic version of Macbook. It had a rather disguising chiclet (island-type) keyboard, no LED indicators, thinner body and as a result much less ports (although for the record I do understand S stands for slim). The only thing it had in common with the previous generations of Thinkpads was the clit, which was kinda useless without the additional row of buttons, the device actually had no touchpad buttons at all as it mimicked the Macbook-style platform touchpad (awful, awful trend, actually). The hardware was of questionable quality and it gave me lots of headache on Linux (especially WiFi) despite the ThinkPads traditionally being considered one of the best laptops, when it comes to compatibility with Linux. I worked on this machine until the company went under, and got used to it somehow, but it never lived up to the image of Thinkpad I had in my head.

Even after that I didn’t give up on the Thinkpad series completely, though it clearly went downhill with every subsequent model. My wife got herself X230 at work and as I got to play with the device a bit, I had an impression that this is not as bad as 431S, so as the line moved forward I decided to go in the opposite direction. At that time I started working in a medium enterprise infosec company and they had Thinkpads all over the place, and most of these were the Thinkpads as I expected them to be from the day one. These were X201 models. They aren’t as outdated as the earlier ones but they have all the right features. Here is a short comparison between some of the latest X series models:

X201 X220 X230 X240
LED Indicators 9 on the front and 3 are mirrored on the back. 3 on the front and 2 on the back. 2 on the front and 2 on the back. None (!)
Keyboard Classic Classic Chiclet Chiclet
Ports VGA, Ethernet, 3 USB, separate ports for mic and headphones, phone line port, ECSC slot. VGA, Mini DisplayPort, 3 USB (1 USB 3.0), combo audio jack, media card reader slot, ECSC slot. VGA, Mini DisplayPort, 3 USB (2 USB 3.0), combo audio jack, media card reader slot, ECSC slot. VGA, Mini DisplayPort, 2 USB 3.0, combo audio jack, media card reader slot, ECSC slot.
ThinkLight (Keyboard Flashlight) Yes Yes Yes The keyboard is backlit instead. Get your tongue out of Apple’s ass, Lenovo!
Clit Buttons Yes Yes Yes Touchpad is a platform with areas for clit buttons, which is kinda sad.*

* – to be fair Thinkpad X250 actually went back to having hardware buttons, so X240 is not the whole new tendency, but rather disappointing stumble.

So, to sum it up for X201:

  • There is the right number of LED indicators (X220 and X230 have less and X240 seem to have none whatsoever) and they are mirrored on the back of the machine, which is convenient, when the lid is closed.
  • The classic Thinkpad keyboard is just right for coding. No trendy chiclet bullshit.
  • Ports and slots is the area, where the age of the machine shows the most. It doesn’t have any USB 3.0 ports and Mini DisplayPort would be actually nice. Still, it’s much better than X240.
  • There are two rows of buttons, one for clit mode and the other for the touchpad. Although I work with clit most of the time, I find having an additional bottom row rather convenient, yet I’d probably go with no touchpad at all.
  • Flashlight!
  • The only problem with X201 model for me is that it’s not available for sale officially anymore (at least where I live), I even tried to buy out my office X201, when leaving the company but they wouldn’t let me. So I found a place that sold used ThinkPads for a reasonable price and bought one from there. This machine is pure magic, and it doesn’t matter that it’s a bit outdated. It has i3 CPU (which is still fair these days), up to 8GB RAM (which is usually enough), extended 6 cell battery makes up for its age (easily gives me 6 or 5 hours of relaxed coding) and overall design hints at the times when the word Thinkpad meant something more than “an ugly plastic Macbook knockoff”. Without much exaggeration I can say, that in 12.5″ X line of ThinkPads (at least to me) the X201 model seems greatly superior to anything made before (due to being relatively modern) or after. It’s still relevant today and has the potential of being developer’s muse (fetishist talking) and workhorse.

    Written by wswld

    March 14, 2015 at 10:47 pm

    ASUS X102B and second screen on Debian

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    I’ve stumbled upon a very capricious piece of hardware lately, which is ASUS X102B. Basic (very basic) video seems to work out of the box, but there are numerous problems here and there. Especially the second screen, which doesn’t seem to work at the first glance. If you run xrandr it will only recognize the “default” output and even that would look pretty much broken. First thing to do was:

    sudo apt-get install firmware-linux-nonfree
    

    Actually, it’s a go-to solution (as in first thing to try) to many Debian hardware-related problems, as the distro doesn’t include non-free firmware by default. After that it recognizes most outputs the right way, but it may miss the right modes. If so, you could add your mode manually.

    First, retrieve the full information about the mode:

    cvt 1920 1080
    

    You will get something like that:

    # 1920x1080 59.96 Hz (CVT 2.07M9) hsync: 67.16 kHz; pclk: 173.00 MHz
    Modeline "1920x1080_60.00"  173.00  1920 2048 2248 2576  1080 1083 1088 1120 -hsync +vsync
    

    Now use the info to add the mode to xrandr and then assign it to the output:

    xrandr --newmode "1920x1080" 173.00  1920 2048 2248 2576  1080 1083 1088 1120 -HSync +VSync
    xrandr --addmode VGA-0 "1920x1080"
    

    Use the xrandr command to check the list of availible outputs and modes. You probably know that already, but here is how to use xrandr with the newly created mode:

    xrandr --output VGA-0 --mode "1920x1080"
    

    Well, as this one issue is officially resolved I’m off to fight the rest of a couple hundred problems, that arise, when trying to use this laptop with Debian. Wish me luck and leave a comment if you had some trouble with the machine (when used with Debian that is) — we could try to work it out together.

    Written by wswld

    February 2, 2015 at 9:17 pm

    Update on BioAid and my Hearing in General

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    This post was written about a year ago, but it has been lost among the drafts, as I haven’t been a frequent guest here lately. Now it’s time to finally publish this piece for good.

    Some time ago I did a big, comprehensive review of the BioAid hearing app for iOS. A couple of months down the road, the situation has changed entirely. I’ve got some good news and some bad news for you. Let’s start with the latter.

    Bad News

    I’ve joined the dark side and after several months of struggling, I’ve finally bought a commercial hearing aid. It is not a spontaneous decision though, I’ve been thoroughly thinking it over for a couple of weeks. Here is what made my mind up:

    1. I’ve started to notice some discomfort while using BioAid, for the most part it was minor headache and mental fatigue. I’ve been taking some medications, that could have caused this effect too, but I do believe BioAid had its share of responsibility in driving me into this condition. As I’ve been using Gradual HF regime, it could be a little too high frequency in my case. Not high enough to notice that at once, but it had some profound effect on me in the long run. I was feeling ruined by the weekday evenings after the full day of continuous use of BioAid at work, and I was feeling OK on weekends, when I hardly used the app at all. I think it was natural fatugue, combined with the sound irritant of BioAid. I’m not saying that you’re sure to be feeling exactly the same way, but I strongly recommend you to stop using the app as soon as you feel any side effects. You should also consider starting using the app twice if you have any sort of rare medical condition. The creators of the app warn you about that themselves.
    2. Annoying state of being unable to use my iPhone to its full potential throughout the day and implications of using it as a hearing aid in day-to-day situations made me feel quite miserable. If you’re interested in what I’m speaking about, I’ve been writing about all the limitations in the original post. However, it could be alright, if you really can’t afford a hearing aid, or want to use the app as a temporary solution.

    As a result, I went to the same center, where I’ve refused to buy an aid in the first place and bought the same exact aid I had been offered back then. It is OK (Widex, by the way), but I’ve not changed my mind completely. I do think that devices like BioAid are the future of hearing aid market, which is really underdeveloped and monopolistic in this day and age.

    Good News

    Some time ago I got this letter in my inbox:

    Dear Vsevolod,

    You contacted me a couple of months back about the original BioAid app. I’d like to let you know that I’ve been looking at the hearing app idea again recently and have just released (yesterday) a rather more powerful and flexible piece of software. Check out aud1.com for more details and don’t hesitate to get back to me if you have any questions.

    Best,

    Dr. Nick Clark

    Dr. Nick Clark is one of the scientists behind the original BioAid project (the one who wrote most of ObjC code, actually) and Aud1 is his solo project. Yes, basically it’s BioAid 2.0 and it’s paid now. Actually, it’s not BioAid 2.0, but rather implementation of BioAid algorithm, as Nick Clark himself explained it:

    I’d just like to clear up any confusion that I may have caused by my haphazardly typed original email! Aud1 is not the new name for BioAid. BioAid is the name of a biologically-inspired open-source gain model. The original BioAid app was a particular implementation of this algorithm (confusingly also named BioAid, but referred to in-house as “the BioAid app”). Aud1 is a much more flexible framework that has been developed independently by one of the original BioAid team (me), and currently runs an optimized version of the BioAid algorithm. However, there are plans to allow the user to switch between various algorithm designs in the future, potentially making Aud1 a useful research tool for field comparisons. Switching algorithms is not like changing the processing strategy on a hearing aid, but rather more like switching out an entire part of the hearing instrument.

    Aud1 is a platform for the BioAid algorithm, and potentially other algorithms in the future, allowing it to behave more like the lab scale version that we used (providing features like linked stereo processing if the user has appropriate input hardware). Aud1 is no more a hearing aid than the original BioAid app can be considered a hearing aid, because they are just a software component restrained by the limitations of the devices on which they run. I prefer the deliberately vague term “assistive hearing technology”. Limitations aside, the the BioAid app really seemed to help a select group of people, and this motivated me to push the technology further, adding many features requested by BioAid-app users. Check it out if you like.

    I installed the app and field-tested it right away. I was glad to see that some of the annoying issues of the original version were gone. The app features much cleaner interface and more flexible configuration with sliders instead of fixed presets. There are no more welcome popup screens appearing every time on startup and the app seems to preserve the configuration on relaunch.

    It also has introduced some new features like an ability to choose bit rate of the output, support for stereo, latency test and input/output calibration. It also provides some basic session info and a logger for the tinkerers. The application now looks more mature and ready for commercial distribution. Although no essential improvement over the original app was introduced, it looks, feels and hears much better, which is enough for me to reach for my wallet. Still, there are issues, that were ignored, like returning to hearing aid mode after a call (as the stock music app does) and some other minor problems. Regimes are the same for the most part (albeit a tad more configurable), hence it haven’t solved my headache problem. Eventually, I’ve abandoned the concept of iPhone as the everyday hearing aid for now. Again, it doesn’t mean it would not work for you. Give it a try.

    By the end of the day I do think that this version is worth every pence, even if you’re not particularly amazed with the new features and improvements. You may consider it a little contribution to an amazing project, especially if you have been using the original BioAid for some time already. After many months of extensive BioAid usage, I was glad to pay it back. Hopefully, you would be too. If you’re completely new to this kind of apps, my advice would be to try BioAid first and see, whether you’re not experiencing any of the side effects and it does help your hearing, then you could easily migrate to Aud1.

    A little year-down-the-road update is due. As of now the projects seems a abandoned: last updates on BioAid and Aud1 Facebook pages date back to September 13, 2013. It is quite unfortunate as the project showed big promise. Hopefully, Nick Clark haven’t abandoned this idea completely and works on something new in the same vein. Time will tell.

    Written by wswld

    September 24, 2014 at 1:20 pm

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    Humble Collection of Python Sphinx Gotchas: Part I

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    Gotcha 1: Getting Started with Sphinx Theming

    Update 02.10.2014: It seems absolutely obvious to me, but apparently it is not that obvious to some: you can’t do anything about your Sphinx theme without some basic CSS and HTML skills. You can only change some of the theme parameters, if the developer was kind enough to add some, but it is well covered in the official documentation.


    Customizing Sphinx visuals was somewhat upsetting to me at first, since the process is not straightforward and documentation is scarce. It could be a little bit user-friendlier. However, as soon as you get a grip on the basics, it gets pretty smooth and simple. You may have already tried copying over the default theme only to discover, that there is nothing particularly useful in there for an inquisitive scholar. Only one of the standard Sphinx themes is in fact complete, the rest of them simply inherit its properties to add some minor alterations. This theme is called Basic and it’s a minimal sandbox template, the only theme that could be helpful for getting to the very bottom of Sphinx customization. Later you’d be able to inherit it and create a template, consisting only of alterations, but for a start it’s OK to copy the Basic in its entirety.

    Hopefully, you’ve already created a folder for your Sphinx project and initiated it by issuing:

    $ sphinx-quickstart
    

    Or you may have an already existing Sphinx project, you want to theme — it’s up to you. In your project folder create the _themes directory and then rename and copy the theme folder there. Basic theme, perhaps, should be located in site_packages folder of your active Python install. On my Mac it’s: /Library/Python/2.7/site-packages/Sphinx-1.2b1-py2.7.egg/sphinx/themes/basic/, but Python on Mac OS X is just weird. If you’re using Linux (/usr/share/sphinx/themes/basic/ on Debian) or Windows, you should look it up yourself.

    Next step would be to change conf.py of your project, accordingly. First, we should make sure, that the following line is uncommented and correct:

    html_theme_path = ['_themes']
    

    Don’t forget to check the value of the html_theme parameter above:

    html_theme = 'renamed_basic'
    
    Basic Theme

    Basic theme without customization looks like vanilla HTML with no stylesheet whatsoever.

    As of now you may start making alterations to the theme. You will find that HTML files in there aren’t really HTML files, but templates (Sphinx uses Jinja template engine) with some staff automatically inserted on build. You can combine these automatic tags with basic HTML tags and as soon as you figure out how it works, you could move some of the interactive tags around, or get rid of some of them altogether. Don’t forget to check whether you’re not breaking anything though. Most visual aspects of Sphinx theme are modified through the main CSS file, which is located in the static folder. For Basic theme it would be basic.css_t. Notice, that t in the extension brings to our attention the fact, that this is a template. Other than that it could be viewed and edited as a simple CSS file. If you’re interested in the values, provided by Sphinx templates and how you cam make use of them, consult the official documentation. If you want the main CSS file to have some other name, you can change that in theme.conf, there are also some other settings, that could be of interest.

    Gotcha 2: Spoiler

    If you play with Sphinx templates for some time, you may want to start adding something more interactive. We could easily implement these kinds of things trough JavaScript or jQuerry (which is kindly included in the package).

    Let’s go trough a little example project, to recognize, what could be achieved with combined power of Sphinx and JavaScript. You may notice, that as for common elements in HTML themes there is usually a way to address them in JavaScript, it’s not that easy to introduce new classes and wrap some parts of the text into them. There is no custom div tag in Sphinx, unless you do that as .. raw directive which is not really a native way, and breaks lots of things. What I needed to do was to wrap some section of text into a div and make it collapsible on button pressed. You could achieve that by creating your own admonition and assigning it to certain HTML class.

    For example:

    .. admonition:: Request
    		:class: splr
     		Request example and parameters.
    

    You can then easily reference this admonition by its class in your JavaScript. For example you could put this jQuerry script to your page.html template:

        <script type="text/javascript">
        $('.splr').css("background-color", '#F0F0F0');
        $('.splr').css('box-shadow', '0px 0px 1px 1px #000000');
        $('.splr > .last').hide();
        $('.splr > .expanded + .last').show('normal');
        $('.splr > p').click(function() {
            $(this).find('.last').hide();
            $(this).toggleClass('expanded').toggleClass('collapsed').next('.last').toggle('normal');
        });
        </script>
    

    If implemented correctly, this script should turn the splr admonition into a collapsible drawer. I’ve been actively using this, when documenting HTTP APIs, since it’s very helpful to hide JSON responses by default. Note, that you could also use this method for special CSS effects. Imagine, if aside from usual note, warning and tip you could have yellow, blue and purple boxes for whatever reason you can think of? Well, it couldn’t be any simpler. Admonitions are good default containers for some parts of your text, that should differ in design or function from the rest of the page.

    Gotcha 3: Interactive TOC in Sidebar

    Not the worst case, but still a valid comparison of TOC trees in Default theme and our JavaScript enhanced Basic. Note, that on the right the subcategories may be collapsed and opened dynamically.

    Not the worst case, but still a valid comparison of TOC trees in Default theme and our JavaScript enhanced Basic.

    You may have noticed, that Sphinx often adds TOC to sidebar automatically, if it’s not explicitly placed in the page itself. While this is certainly a very useful feature, sometimes things get out of control. I didn’t use the worst case in the picture on the right, but it could get up to innumerable 1st level sections, each of them could have a number of subsections and so on. Sometimes it is a clear sign, that the page should be reorganized into multiple standalone pages, united by a category, but it’s not always possible or needed. It’s perfectly alright to have a long and deep TOC in some cases and Default Sphinx theme is terrible in that regard (as of 2014 it is fixed and children categories are shown only for the currently selected one).

    You could use an updated version of the algorithm from the previous example to collapse some parts of the TOC by default. Note, how this script works with ul and li tags of the TOC tree list. Some stuff is applied recursively on the highest level of the list, some — on the subsequent levels. Especially noticeable with different styles applied to different levels of the list, so that you could tell whether it is 1st, 2nd or even 3rd level title. Here is the full script:

        <script type="text/javascript">
        $('.sphinxsidebar').attr('position', 'fixed');
        $('.sphinxsidebar').css('position', 'fixed');
        $("h3:contains('Table Of Contents')").css('border-bottom', '1px');
        $("h3:contains('Table Of Contents')").text('TOC:');
    
        $('.sphinxsidebarwrapper li').css('background-color', '#B8B8B8');
        $('.sphinxsidebarwrapper li').css('box-shadow', '0px 0px 1px 1px #000000');
        $('.sphinxsidebarwrapper li').css('color', 'white');
        $('.sphinxsidebarwrapper li').css('border-color', '#000000');
    
        $('.sphinxsidebarwrapper li > ul > li').css('background', '#D0D0D0');
        $('.sphinxsidebarwrapper li > ul > li').css('box-shadow', '0px 0px 1px 1px #000000');
        $('.sphinxsidebarwrapper li > ul > li > ul > li').css('background', '#F0F0F0');
    
        $('.sphinxsidebarwrapper li > ul').hide();
        $('.sphinxsidebarwrapper li > .expanded + ul').show('normal');
        $('.sphinxsidebarwrapper li > a').click(function() {
        //hide everything
        $(this).find('li').hide();
        //toggle next ul
        $(this).toggleClass('expanded').toggleClass('collapsed').next('ul').toggle('normal');
        });
        </script>
    

    Perhaps, it won’t look very well, but it is a very simplified version to illustrate the concept. If you get the idea, you may alter or add .css methods to achieve more plausible visuals. You could also work on lower title levels, but you will have to figure it all out for yourself. In this version algorithm works best only with three headings levels from <h1> to <h2>, but it could definitely handle more.

    That’s it. I’ve compiled these examples as a full-featured theme project on GitHub. I’m going to polish it to some extent and perhaps, implement more interactive stuff over time. Feel free to contribute to this little project. Nope, never happened. Well, it did happened actually, but it was no good, sorry. If you come upon any issue with this little gotchas of mine, let me know. Sure, I’ve tested everything myself, but you never know. Also, you’re free to use any of these examples as a building block in your work with no attribution, since they’re rather generic and simple.

    Written by wswld

    September 2, 2013 at 7:11 pm

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